Title: Classification of Periodic LCA Groups of Finite Non-Archimedean Dimension

by Wayne Lewis (University of Hawaiʻi) as part of Topological Groups

Lecture held in Elysium.

Abstract

A periodic LCA group such that the $p$-components all have $p$-rank bounded above by a common positive integer are classified via a complete set of topological isomorphism invariants realized by an equivalence relation on pairs of extended supernatural vectors.

Remaining time will be devoted to a facilitated discussion on how things are going this fall/winter academic semester in your part of the world as you see it.

Title: Discovering structure within the class of K-trivial sets

by Andre Nies (University of Auckland) as part of Computability theory and applications

Abstract

Joint work with Noam Greenberg, Joseph Miller, and Dan Turetsky

The K-trivial sets are antirandom in the sense that the initial segment complexity in terms of prefix-free Kolmogorov complexity K grows as slowly as possible. Chaitin introduced this notion in about 1975, and showed that each K-trivial is Turing below the halting set. Shortly after, Solovay proved that a K-trivial set can be noncomputable.

In the past two decades, many alternative characterisations of this class have been found: properties such as being low for K, low for Martin-Löf (ML) randomness, and a basis for ML randomness, which state in one way or the other that the set is close to computable.

Initially, the class of noncomputable K-trivials appeared to be amorphous. More recently, evidence of an internal structure has been found. Most of these results can be phrased in the language of a mysterious reducibility on the K-trivials which is weaker than Turing’s: A is ML-below B if each ML-random computing B also computes A.

Bienvenu, Greenberg, Kucera, Nies and Turetsky (JEMS 2016) showed that there an ML complete K-trivial set. Greenberg, Miller and Nies (JML, 2019) established a dense hierarchy of subclasses of the K-trivials based on fragments of Omega computing the set, and each such subclass is an initial segment for ML. More recent results generalise these approaches using cost functions. They also show that each K-trivial set is ML-equivalent to a c.e. K-trivial.

The extreme lowness of K-trivials, far from being an obstacle, allows for methods which don’t work in a wider setting. The talk provides an overview and discusses open questions. For instance, is ML-completeness an arithmetical property of K-trivials?

Title: The Semigroup $beta S$

by Dona Strauss (University of Leeds) as part of Topological Groups

Lecture held in Elysium.

Abstract

If $S$ is a discrete semigroup, the semigroup operation on $S$ can be extended to a semigroup operation on its Stone–Čech compactification $beta S$. The properties of the semigroup $beta S$ have been a powerful tool in topological dynamics and combinatorics.

I shall give an introductory description of the semigroup $beta S$, and show how its properties can be used to prove some of the classical theorems of Ramsey Theory.

Title: Part 1 of Martin’s Conjecture for Order Preserving Functions

by Patrick Lutz (UC Berkeley) as part of Computability theory and applications

Abstract

Martin’s conjecture is an attempt to make precise the idea that the only natural functions on the Turing degrees are the constant functions, the identity, and transfinite iterates of the Turing jump. The conjecture is typically divided into two parts. Very roughly, the first part states that every natural function on the Turing degrees is either eventually constant or eventually increasing and the second part states that the natural functions which are increasing form a well-order under eventual domination, where the successor operation in this well-order is the Turing jump.

In the 1980′s, Slaman and Steel proved that the second part of Martin’s conjecture holds for order-preserving Borel functions. In joint work with Benny Siskind, we prove the complementary result that (assuming analytic determinacy) the first part of the conjecture also holds for order-preserving Borel functions (and under AD, for all order-preserving functions). Our methods also yield several other new results, including an equivalence between the first part of Martin’s conjecture and a statement about the Rudin-Keisler order on ultrafilters on the Turing degrees.

In my talk, I will give an overview of Martin’s conjecture and then describe our new results.

Title: The characterization of Weihrauch reducibility in systems containing $E$-$PA^omega$ + $QF$-$AC^{0,0}$

by Patrick Uftring (TU Darmstadt) as part of Computability theory and applications

Abstract

We characterize Weihrauch reducibility in E-PAω + QF-AC0,0 and all systems containing it by the provability in a linear variant of the same calculus using modifications of Gödel’s Dialectica interpretation that incorporate ideas from linear logic, nonstandard arithmetic, higher-order computability, and phase semantics. A full preprint is available here: https://arxiv.org/abs/2003.13331

Title: Closed Lie Ideals and Center of Generalized Group Algebras

by Bharat Talwar (University of Dehli) as part of Topological Groups

Lecture held in Elysium.

Abstract

The closed Lie ideals of the generalized group algebra $L^1(G,A)$ are characterized in terms of elements of the group $G$, elements of the algebra $A$, and the modular function $Delta$ of the group $G$. Conditions under which for a given closed Lie ideal $Lsubseteq A$ the subspace $L^1(G,L)$ is a Lie ideal, and vice versa, are discussed. The center of $L^1(G,A)$ is characterized, followed by a discussion regarding a very special projection in $L^1(G,A)$. Finally, a few restrictions are imposed on $G$ and $A$ under which $mathcal{Z}(L^1(G,A))congmathcal{Z}(L^1(G))otimes^gammamathcal{Z}(A)$.

The presentation is based on joint work with Ved Prakash Gupta and Ranjana Jain.

Title: The higher levels of the Weihrauch lattice

by Alberto Marcone (Università di Udine) as part of Computability theory and applications

Abstract

The classification of mathematical problems in the Weihrauch lattice is a line of research that blossomed in the last few years. Initially this approach dealt mainly with statements which are provable in ACA_0 and showed that usually Weihrauch reducibility is more fine-grained than reverse mathematics.

In the last few years the study of multi-valued functions arising from statements laying at higher levels (such as ATR_0 and Pi^1_1-CA_0) of the reverse mathematics spectrum started as well. The multi-valued functions studied so far include those arising from the perfect tree theorem, comparability of well-orders, determinacy of open and clopen games, König’s duality theorem, various forms of choice, the open and clopen Ramsey theorem and the Cantor-Bendixson theorem.

At this level often a single theorem naturally leads to several multi-valued functions of different Weihrauch degree, depending on how the theorem is “read” from a computability viewpoint. A case in point is the perfect tree theorem: it can be read as the request to produce a perfect subtree of a tree with uncountably many paths, or as the request to list all paths of a tree which does not contain a perfect subtree. Similarly, the clopen Ramsey theorem leads to the multi-valued function that associates to every clopen subset of [N]^N an infinite homogeneous set on either side, and to the multi-valued function producing for each clopen subset which has an infinite homogeneous sets on one side a homogeneous set on that side. Similar functions can be defined similarly starting from the open Ramsey theorem.

In this talk I discuss some of these results, emphasizing recent joint work with my students Vittorio Cipriani and Manlio Valenti.